1). They hatch into crawlers (first instar nymphs) from mid-June through mid-July, and migrate to the underside of host plant foliage where they insert their piercing-sucking mouthparts. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Save For Later Print Available in Spanish. Description of cottony maple scale. This site designed and maintained by CFAES Marketing and Communications. Mature females are pale to dark brown, convex, and about 3-6 mm long (Fig. Some of the leaves look like they are being eaten by the fungus. | Columbus, Ohio 43210 | 614-292-6181 Cottony maple scale crawlers along leaf veins in the summer. | Columbus, Ohio 43210. They are firmly attached to the twigs and branches of various trees and may be ¼ to ⅜ inch in diameter. The female completes development in June and lays egg masses through late summer. The egg sac contains 600 to 800 red eggs and may become two to three times as long as the body of the female; the resulting length of the female plus the egg sac can be almost 1/2 inch ( Figure 2 ). Maple cotton scale is found on several other common hardwood trees such as ash, elm and boxelder. Unfortunately, many maples are sensitive to these oil sprays and significant small branch dieback or spring leaf drop can occur if the dormant oil is applied after the maple sap has begun to flow. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be … Symptoms & Life Cycle The scale, adults and nymphs, sucks sap and weaken plants. Honeydew promotes the growth of a black sooty mold, that imparts a blackened appearance to leaves, twigs, branches, and other substrates beneath an infested host plant. They become active and feed on the leaves between June and July. Certain insecticides may cause damage to soft maples; do not apply insecticidal soap to Japanese maple. The fungus is on almost every leaf. The cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is one of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects in this country. The cottony maple leaf scale is so named because the females exude their eggs in an elongated, white, cottony structure called an ovisac which are stuck onto the underside of leaves. The cottony maple scale is a large, flat, brown scale insect found on the twigs and branches of various trees. Every 5 to 10 years we experience an "outbreak" of cottony maple scale somewhere in the state. It looks like white puffs of rice with a black spot on one side of the puff. CFAES COVID-19 Resources:   Safe and Healthy Buckeyes   |   COVID-19 Hub   |   CFAES Calendar. The cause of this annoyance is a tiny insect known as Cottony Maple Scale. If abundant, a sooty mold fungus may colonize the honeydew, resulting in a black sooty appearance on the leaves, twigs, and branches. In the spring, a white egg sac is developed and holds many crawlers (insect). The crawlers, or immature scale insects, produce large amounts of honeydew while feeding on leaves. There are several predators and parasitoids that will naturally keep cottony maple scale populations in check. Dormant oil sprays have been traditionally used to manage many scales on ornamental trees. It looks like white puffs of rice with a black spot on one side of the puff. Pulvinaria innumerabilis. The crawlers walk onto the leaves and tend to attach alongside the major leaf veins, usually on the underside. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement. ; willow, Salix spp . Did you know this is actually an insect? Why do we need this? Heavily infested branches can be killed by the cottony maple scale. Cottony maple leaf scale females form their ovisacs on leaves, not on branches. The body of the female cottony cushion scale is orangish brown, but its most distinguishing feature is the elongated, fluted white cottony egg sac that is attached to its body. Coffee scale is a major agricultural pest in coffee crops. Accessibility Accommodation. Cottony Maple Scale. Following a recommended fertility program and watering regime will promote plant health. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility. College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. Affected scales often turn brown or black and have tiny round emergence holes on their back surface. Apply registered products in mid-July and again in the second week of August for best control. These soft scales are usually first noticed during the summer months when the female produces a conspicuous white egg sac, called an ovisac, that appears as a ¼- to ½-inch long ball of cotton. Its favored host is maple trees, although it has been found on a number of other species as well. The eggs hatch in late June and July and the crawlers move to the leaves. Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. In early summer mature females begin to secrete white, waxy, cottony-appearing egg sacs in which they lay as many as 1,500 eggs. The cottony maple scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis, is a common insect pest in midMichigan. Scales tend to thrive on stressed plants. Phone: 614-292-6181, © 2020 | 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. The cottony maple scale is one of the largest and most conspicuous soft scale insects that attack ornamental deciduous plants. Cottony maple leaf scale females and egg sacs. Other host preferences include: The "cotton" is actually waxy threads covering as many as 1,500 eggs. Its favored host is silver maple, Acer saccharinum. The scale is called maple cotton scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis whereas cottony cushion scale is Icerya purchasi, which I am sure clears that up completely for you doesn’t it? These tiny crawlers are small, flat, oval insects with two distinct eyes, short antennae and tiny legs. Copyright © 2015, The Ohio State University, David J. Shetlar and Jennifer E. Andon, Department of Entomology, ©  2020 The Ohio State University, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. Young females have a dark stripe down the middle and mottling at the sides. These materials also have minimal adverse effects on the adult lady beetles and parasites already in settled crawlers. Occasionally, with very high infestations of feeding crawlers, leaves may turn yellow and fall prematurely, ultimately causing individual branch dieback. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. These eggs hatch from mid-June to August, and the young nymphs called scale crawlers emerge… However, in some years, the scale population increases above “normal” and becomes large enough to get noticed. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. Consequently, they may not be effective where several l… Cottony maple scale Pulvinaria innumerabilis. The "cotton" is actually a waxy secretion enveloping the ovisac, which may contain over 1,500 eggs. Honeydew often drops onto leaves or plants below. Soaps and horticultural oils can be very effective in managing the freshly settled crawlers. Other species of wax scales include tree dwellers like the cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) or the calico scale (Eulecanium cerasorum). During the summer, the scale enlarges by secreting wax resulting in a body several times greater than the overwintering form. Do not contaminate forage, streams, or ponds. Timing pesticide application to the crawler stage is very important. Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. The biggest problem is the honeydew dripping down on decks, picnic tables, lawn chairs and parked cars. The overwintering form of the cottony maple scale is a small, brown, flattened 1/8 inch long scale attached to the bark of twigs and small branches. Cottony maple scales are occasionally confused with a close relative, the cottony maple leaf scale, Pulvinaria acericola. They are slightly convex and are brown with a yellow-brown ridge down the back (Figure 1). Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Normally, this peculiar scale is a mere curiosity and a nuisance. Mature cottony maple scales are small, flat, oval, brown insects without obvious legs, antennae or wings. Also, when this soft scale feeds on leaves and twigs, a large quantity of honeydew is excreted. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. List of files and visuals associated with this text. However, every few years, these natural controls seem to fail and the cottony maple scale can reach epidemic proportions. Q: I have what I think is a fungus on the underside of my red maple. Cottony Maple Scale Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. CFAES Diversity  |  Nondiscrimination notice  |  Site Map. The cottony maple scale is one of the largest and most conspicuous soft scale insects that attack ornamental plants. Cottony Maple Scale is starting to hatch in the Treasure Valley. After mating, the males die and the females soon withdraw their mouthparts and crawl back onto small twigs and branches. When the sap begins to flow in the spring, the females continue to feed and grow, producing considerable amounts of honeydew. Overwintering nymphs may be managed with an application of horticultural oil made in early spring before new growth starts as adormant treatment. Columbus, Ohio 43210 If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. Trunk and soil injections can be done in the fall or spring. A close examination of the ovisacs reveals the eggs are held inside a sack-like matrix of sticky, silk-like material. In extreme conditions, a tree may be killed. This damage causing insect is a sucking insect that has a straw like mouth it uses to feed itself on the leaves of the host tree. It is commonly mistaken for "plant sap" being dropped on cars, sidewalks and lawn furniture lying under trees. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE . Identify cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis), the most common scale insect species to infest maple trees, by their adult female scales with cotton-like egg sacks on their hind ends. The developing females and nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew which can collect on foliage and branches and cause growth of sooty mold. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. High populations can result in branches being completely inundated with females and their white egg masses. Fig. Rarely, heavy infestations have been found to kill stressed or weakened trees. A large number of other deciduous trees are also attacked including other species of maple, such as boxelder, A. negundo ; basswood, Tilia americana ; white ash, Fraxinus americana ; dogwood, Cornus spp ; locust, Robinia spp. This soft scale overwinters as a second instar nymph on the bark of host twigs and branches. Soaps and oils only kill the pests on contact. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. The settled nymphs are also attacked by several tiny parasitic wasps. Crawlers may be managed with an application of a registered insecticide made in late June and repeated according to label directions in early July. These scales flatten themselves against tree branches to feed. ; birch, Betula spp. Both the adults and larvae enter ovisacs to feed on the egg masses. They feed by withdrawing sap from vascular cells of the plant. These pesticides, again, often need to be applied in sufficient spray quantity to wet both the leaf upper and lower surfaces to be effective. The most important predators are several black lady beetles. Application of soaps or oils should be made in mid-July and again in early August, if additional crawlers are found. Nymphs are brown-translucent, 1/5 inch; females lay eggs in the white marshmallow egg-sac along the twigs and small branches; Young insects remove sap from leaves creating a speckled appearance and possibly yellowing leaves in mid to late summer Soft scales feed in vascular components of plants. Mature cottony maple scales are small, flat, oval, brown insects without obvious legs, antennae or wings. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. The cottony maple leaf scale is so named because the females exude their eggs in an elongated, white, cottony structure called an ovisac which are stuck onto the underside of leaves. It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. They send us twigs which are covered over with some kind of louse , and ask us what they can do to preserve the foliage of their trees . As honeydew collects on leaves and branches, bees, wasps and ants are attracted to the area to feed. In September, the male scales emerge as tiny winged gnatlike insects that move around on the leaves in search of females. The Cottony Maple Scale will survive over winter and pester the tree over and over as you can read in the previous attachment. ; sycamore, Platanus spp . This scale looks like cotton balls attached to the stem. Insecticidal soaps or 1.5 percent horticultural oil must be applied thoroughly to the leaves, both to the underside and upper surfaces, in order to kill the scales. Pesticides are poisonous. The rest of the time the scale is present but in numbers too low to attract attention. Just before leaf drop in the fall, nymphs move back to host plant twigs and branches to overwinter. Small, newly transplanted trees or weakened or stressed trees due to drought, compacted soils, poor fertilization, etc., are the ones most likely to exhibit major branch or crown dieback, or even death. The "cotton" is actually a waxy secretion enveloping the ovisac, which may contain over 1,500 eggs. Q: I have what I think is a fungus on the underside of my red maple. This pest spends the remainder of the summer feeding on leaves. Cottony maple scale is a lecanium-type scale, being very similar in appearance to European fruit lecanium for most of the year. Cottony maple scale is always present in Iowa but in most years is too low in abundance to attract attention. They are firmly attached to the twigs and branches of various trees and may be ¼ to ⅜ inch in diameter. When we do see it, however, the show is spectacular. Cottony Maple Scale starts off as an unnoticeable, brown scale. A close examination of the ovisacs reveals the eggs are held inside a sack-like matrix of sticky, silk-like material. At maturity, the females produce the white, cottony egg masses, called ovisacs, over a period of several weeks. At maturity, the females produce the white, cottony egg masses, called ovisacs, over a period of several weeks. The most common one, Hyperaspis signata, has a larva that looks like a mealybug. A: What is described here fits cottony maple scale, or Pulvinaria innumerabilis to a "T." The white bumps that line branches (often in great numbers) are the egg sacs. By this time, the scales look like two different kinds: a translucent white to pink form and a larger, flat, tan form. Heavy infestations can result in branch dieback and in rare instances, tree death. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. This insect is active throughout the United States and attacks many shade trees and shrubs, but it is primarily found on soft Maples and Lindens. The fungus is on almost every leaf. ; hackberry, Celtis spp. Heavy scale insect populations withdraw plant fluid and cause dieback of twigs and branches. For technical support please contact the CFAES Helpdesk. Inappropriate timing is not only ineffective, but Damage to the host tree is caused when heavy populations of cottony maple scale withdraw sap from the plant, resulting in branch and twig dieback. They are also called cottony taxus scales as this scale is a fairly common pest of yew. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be up to 5mm wide and 12mm long. If you have a disability and experience difficulty accessing this content request accommodation here. The cottony maple scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis (Rathvon), is a highly modified insect pest that commonly attacks silver and red maples in Ohio. Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Cottony Maple Scale. They are black, flat, and oval. The crawler's waste is called honeydew. Cottony taxus scale is a soft scale (produces a thin, waxy outer covering attached to insect) as opposed to a hard scale (produces a harder, outer shell not attached to the insect). Females without egg sacs are 1/8 inch (2-3 mm) long, flat, pale to dark brown and soft. These lady beetles continue to feed on the nymphs that settle on the leaves. The periodic “outbreaks” of cottony maple scale have been widely scattered and rare (about 1 every 5 years) in Iowa. Cottony maple scales can reach epidemic numbers on silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other species of soft maple. The body of the scale is white and resembles a kernel of popcorn. Several insecticides are registered for control of scale crawlers and newly settled crawlers. The trunk I believe is showing extensive canker damage from a fungal disease, possible tubercularia or nectria which could have been exacerbated through our tough winter temperatures this past winter. ; elm, Ulmus spp. Mature female scales are brown, roundish, and about one-quarter inch in … Improved growing conditions and pruning out the dead branches will greatly promote plant health. Here, they reinsert their mouthparts and settle down for the remainder of their life. In some cases, premature loss of foliage may result from an infestation of this soft scale insect. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. What makes management of this scale more difficult is the fact that insecticide applications may actually cause the scale problem to continue longer than normal. Cottony maple scales and egg masses. Books Advanced Search Today's Deals New Releases Amazon Charts Best Sellers & More The Globe & Mail Best Sellers Advanced Search Today's Deals New Releases Amazon Charts Best Sellers & More The Globe & Mail Best A favored host is silver maple, but it will attack other species of maple as well. Frequently, feeding results in the secretion of a clear sticky substance called honeydew. Unfortunately, these natural enemies are also extremely susceptible to pesticide applications, so timing chemical treatments properly is very important. Under severe conditions an infestation may kill the entire tree. Severely infested trees appear as though they were covered with a string of popcorn. View our privacy policy. 1). Cottony Maple Scale . This fact sheet is a revision of HYG-2019. Although a heavy infestation may cause some thinning of the canopy, it rarely results in tree death. These wasps lay eggs inside the nymphs, in which their developing larvae feed on the pest from the inside out. Always follow the pesticide label. Cottony Maple Scale. Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. Regular mosquito fogging is also blamed for killing of the predators and parasitoids. (76) Photo: John Davidson be controlled as crawlers and immatures. Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide, only controls soft scales. By late May to early June, the females have matured, and they begin to produce their ovisacs. These are male and female scales, respectively. One of the insects we see on rare occasion in Iowa is the cottony maple scale. Types of Cottony Maple Scale There are many types of scale insects and several of those produce a white cotton-like mass. In spring the female matures and lays eggs. .• Insecticidal Sprays Horticultural oils kill by suffocation or after penetrating over-wintering stages of the insect. Notice that ones with black color are parasitized by a tiny wasp. Pest description and damageMature cottony maple scale are small, flat, oval, brown insects 0.25 to 0.375 inch in diameter. Here, the nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew and grow by molting once. It has been reported on over a dozen species of trees, but is most common on silver and red maple. Second instar cottony maple scale nymphs. Read and follow directions and safety precautions on labels. Authored by: Gregory A. Hoover, Sr. Extension Associate. Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. Honeydew is the excess water and sugar excreted by many plant-sap-feeding insects. The white cottony egg masses, which resemble popcorn, are the most distinguishing feature of this scale. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE is an insect pest of maples, especially silver maples and locust trees primarily, but also will infest several other species. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. Additionally, an unsightly fungus called "sooty mold" begins to develop on the honeydew, turning the leaf surface a gray-black color which, in turn, may hinder photosynthesis. Some of the leaves look like they are being eaten by the fungus. Pulvinaria innumerabilis (cottony maple scale) is a small, flattened, brown scale insect about 1/8" long. The pest is very common in … This is a result of a poorly timed pesticide application that kills most of the parasites and predators but allows survival of the resistant scale stages, protected by their waxy covering. Male scales mature in late summer, mate with the female and then die. These eggs hatch from mid-June to August, and the young nymphs called scale crawlers emerge. Cottony maple scales will produce white cottony egg sacs by mid-June. The body is covered with flakes of clear wax. The eggs are held inside a sack-like matrix of sticky, silk-like material many types of scale insects attack! 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